Special Considerations in Pediatric Red Cell Transfusions
There is concern for toxicity of red cell additive solutions containing adenine & mannitol to cause liver & renal dysfunction if given in large doses. The storage age of the red cell unit can affect extracellular potassium in the unit; too much potassium can cause cardiac toxicity. For these reasons, the choice of red cell products is based on the dose.
- Routine or small volume transfusion: typically 10 mL/kg (Indications: Routine transfusion, anemic NICU patient from blood draws)
- Large volume transfusion: 20-25 mL/kg (Indications: IUT, cardiac surgery with bypass, ECMO, trauma)
- Infant blood protocol: 1 sample from baby <4m used until baby is 4m, to prevent excess phlebotomy during a concurrent hospital admission.
(1) Assigned aliquots = RBC AS-3 Divided Unit
- Volume: ~40mL (1/8 of a regular sized rbc unit plus preservative)
- Preservative/Additive: Optisol = AS-5 (similar as CPD, plus mannitol & adenine)
- Shelf-life: 42 days, one set of 8 units assigned to one patient
- Attributes: Leukoreduced, HbS negative, Irradiated (if child <4m or if indicated otherwise)
- HCT of unit: 57%
- Indications: Used for small volume transfusions, reduces donor exposure because all 8 aliqouts are kept for one patient.
- Dose: 10-15mL/kg will increase Hb ~1.6 g/dL
(2) Reconstituted Whole Blood: Used for manual exchange transfusions.
- AS-3 leukocyte reduced
- HbS negative
- Irradiated red cells and AB plasma.
Platelets are not supplied in this product; post-procedure platelet count should be obtained.