Platelet Immunology Laboratory
Definition of Terms
Types of Measurements
- Direct Test: Detection of antibodies bound to patient’s platelets.
- Indirect Test: Detection of antibodies in patient’s plasma by incubating the plasma with allogeneic platelets.
Platelet Antibody Assays
- Flow Cytometry Assay: A flow cytometer uses fluorescent antibodies to detect IgG or IgM antibodies bound to autologous or allogeneic platelets.
Platelet Antigen Determination
- DNA Typing: This test uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the genetic code variations responsible for the different platelet antigens (HPA-1 through HPA-6).
- Platelet Antibody Determination (MAIPA): An enzyme linked assay (ELISA) performed by either using donor platelets of known platelet types to determine the specificity of platelet antibodies or a commercially available kit.
Heparin Antibody Assay
- Heparin-Platelet Factor 4 Assay: Enzyme linked assay using a complex of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4) to capture antibody developed during type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).
ADAMTS-13 Protease Activity
- ADAMTS -13 Protease Activity is measured by a Fluorescence Resonace Transfer (FRET) Assay in which fluorescence is detected when a synthetic von Willebrand Factor peptide (VWF73) is cleaved by ADAMTS13. Inhibitor activity is determined by measuring the ability of heat treated patient plasma to inhibit ADAMTS13 in normal plasma; inhibitor activity is expressed as percent inhibition of the ADAMTS13.